Publications involving Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA)

We, the developers of the TSA software, have published methodological papers and meta-analyses or systematic reviews where the TSA software is used for sequential hypothesis testing (please also see Chapter 5.6 in the Manual, which is available for download in EnglishChinese, and Spanish).

  • Claire R, Gluud C, Berlin I, Coleman T, Leonardi-Bee J. Using Trial Sequential Analysis for estimating the sample sizes of further trials: example using smoking cessation intervention. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020; 20 (1); 284-284. View
  • Gartlehner G, Nussbaumer-Streit B, Wagner G, Patel S, Swinson-Evans T, Dobrescu A, Gluud C. Increased risks for random errors are common in outcomes graded as high certainty of evidence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2019; 106; 50-59. View.
  • Castellini G, Bruschettini M, Gianola S, Gluud C, Moja L. Assessing imprecision in Cochrane systematic reviews: a comparison of GRADE and Trial Sequential Analysis. Systematic Reviews 2018-07-28; 7 (1); 110-110. View.
  • Wetterslev J, Jakobsen JC, Gluud C. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis. BMC Med Res Methodol 2017;17(1):39. View.
  • Nielsen N, Friberg H, Gluud C, Herlitz J, Wetterslev J. Hypothermia after cardiac arrest should be further evaluated - A systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2011; 151(3): 333–41. View.
  • Brok J, Thorlund K, Wetterslev J, Gluud C. Apparently conclusive meta-analyses may be inconclusive - Trial sequential analysis adjustment of random error risk due to repetitive testing of accumulating data in apparently conclusive neonatal meta-analyses. Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38(1): 287-98. View.
  • Thorlund K, Devereaux PJ, Wetterslev J, Guyatt G, Ioannidis JP, Thabane L, Gluud LL, Als-Nielsen B, Gluud C. Can trial sequential monitoring boundaries reduce spurious inferences from meta-analyses? Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38(1): 276-86. View.
  • Wetterslev J, Thorlund K, Brok J, Gluud C. Estimating required information size by quantifying diversity in random-effects model meta-analyses. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009; 9(86). View.
  • Afshari A, Wetterslev J, Brok J, Møller AM. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; (3): CD005370. View.
  • Bangalore S, Wetterslev J, Pranesh S, Sawhney S, Gluud C, Messerli FH. Perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2008; 372(9654): 1962-76. View.
  • Bender R, Bunce C, Clarke M, Gates S, Lange S, Pace NL, Thorlund K. Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61(9): 857-65. View.
  • Brok J, Thorlund K, Gluud C, Wetterslev J. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61(8): 763-9. View.
  • Rambaldi A, Saconato HH, Christensen E, Thorlund K, Wetterslev J, Gluud C. Systematic review: glucocorticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis - a Cochrane Hepato Biliary Group systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized clinical trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 27(12): 1167-78. View.
  • Wetterslev J, Thorlund K, Brok J, Gluud C. Trial sequential analysis may establish when firm evidence is reached in cumulative meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61(1): 64-75. View.
  • Afshari A, Wetterslev J, Brok J, Møller A. Antithrombin III in critically ill patients: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ. 2007; 335(7632): 1248-51. View.
  • Thorlund K, Wetterslev J, Brok J, Gluud C. Trial sequential analyses of six meta-analyses considering heterogeneity and trial weight (Abstract). Cochrane Colloquium, Melbourne, 2005. View.

We advocate TSA users to refer to one or more of these papers and abstracts in addition to our TSA Manual in case you want to publish your results.

Moreover, please read this article and chapter:

  • Jakobsen JC, Wetterslev J, Winkel P, Lange T, Gluud C. Thresholds for statistical and clinical significance in systematic reviews with meta-analytic methods. BMC Medical Res Methodol 2014; 14: 120. View.
  • Thomas J, Askie LM, Berlin JA, Elliott JH, Ghersi D, Simmonds M, Takwoingi Y, Tierney JF, Higgins HPT. Chapter 22: Prospective approaches to accumulating evidence. In: Higgins JPT, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, Welch VA (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.1 (updated September 2020). Cochrane, 2020. View.